Quinta-feira, 22 de Julho de 2004

TEIMANDO EM CONVERSAR SOBRE O RACISMO

ciganos.jpg

Sabia que, tratando do tema do racismo, corria alguns riscos. Primeiro, não sou académico no assunto. Segundo, as ideias feitas são tantas que, quando se lhe pega, alguma susceptibilidade será ferida. Terceiro, escrever para um blogue com precisão e amplitude num tema destes, é obra de génio (e sobre isso dizem-me desde miúdo que eu tenho “mau génio”). Mas o tema preocupa-me porque há demónios à solta e outros mais a espreitarem. E pareceu-me que discuti-lo era a melhor forma de ajudar a exorcizá-los. Limitei-me a pensá-lo em voz alta, organizando meras percepções de senso comum. Falei mais de África, para facilitar a faladura. Sei bem que ele não é exclusivo na relação europeu-africano (pois, também há racismo negro, de que maneira e tão retrógrado como o inverso). O racismo relativamente aos ciganos é intensíssimo. Depois, a xenofobia mistura-se e, em Portugal, ele é particularmente virulento para com imigrantes brasileiros e eslavos. Assim, lancei uma ponta para que outros lhe pegassem e tecessem discursos mais entendidos.

Alguns comentaram nas pendurezas dos posts, outros referiram-se-lhes nos seus blogues. Um ilustre visitante enviou-me mail com uma achega que me merece destaque e partilha. Aqui fica ela (para animar o debate se a tanto aprouver à respeitável blogosfera).

“Nascido e criado em Vila Real de Santo António só vi um africano quase na idade adulta. É uma terra culturalmente muito isolada, onde a emigração ou mesmo a ida para África não era opção habitual. Em consequência, o confronto de culturas não existia nem o problema do racismo na perspectiva da relação com os africanos. Era uma terra a que o anterior regime colocou uma cruz em cima (os votos da esquerda valem mais de que na generalidade do País, incluindo o Alentejo), mas a luta contra o regime era no plano dos direitos políticos. Quanto a África o problema resolvia-se roubando um pneumático em Monte Gordo e atravessando o rio.
Curiosamente era uma das poucas localidades do país onde a comunidade cigana estava totalmente integrada, e nem aí os traços de racismo eram evidentes.
Mas havia racismo e não era pouco, em relação a uma comunidade de Monte Gordo, os “cuicos”, tratados como se fossem mesmo seres de terceira. Até duvido que ainda hoje haja casamentos mistos.
Isto para começar por uma primeira discordância em relação à abordagem e que consiste em colocar a questão do racismo sempre em relação ao africano. Eu sei que o que se diz nos posts é válido para outras das muitas fórmulas de racismo que existe por cá; mesmo assim acho que a comunidade cigana, que admiro e por cujos valores tenho um grande respeito, continua a ser alvo de um racismo feroz sem que nada seja feito, e mesmo quando se combate o racismo, esta comunidade fica de fora.
A primeira vez que convivi com africanos foi já como estudante em Lisboa numa residência universitária (Ribeiro Santos) onde grande parte dos estudantes era proveniente da Guiné. Aí fui amigo de uns e não gostei de outros, senti-me culturalmente próximo de uns e não me entendi com os comportamentos culturais de outros. Quando gostava aproximava-me e quando não gostava afastava-me. Se era filho da mãe era isso que lhes chamava.
Por vezes esta questão coloca-se em termos que parece que temos que respeitar um código especial quando nos relacionamos com culturas diferentes; e muitas vezes penso até onde vai o apego à minha cultura, aos meus hábitos ou às minhas tradições e onde pode começar o racismo ou uma atitude inquinada por racismo. Ouvimos dizer "todos diferentes, todos iguais" mas insiste-se infinitamente mais nos todos iguais do que nos todos diferentes.
Outra questão que não está nos seus posts, mas que nalguns debates aparece de mistura quando está em causa conhecer as causas do subdesenvolvimento a que África parece ter sido condenada, é uma tendência para culpabilizar o colonialismo, como se não existisse uma multiplicidade de factores.
O colonialismo tem quase todas as culpas mas infelizmente muitas elites africanas nascidas na luta contra o colonialismo também já começam a ter algumas contas no cartório, a não ser que invoquem que os seus defeitos são eles próprios um resultado do colonialismo. Esta abordagem redutora permite esconder outros factores.”
publicado por João Tunes às 22:00
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